Depreciation is an accounting concept. It makes it possible to take into account that an object loses value over time (for example because of its wear or its immobilization). Depreciation allows a deduction from taxable profit because the replacement will have to be taken into account.
For an asset to be depreciable, it must meet conditions.
The Three Conditions
Three Conditions Are Necessary For A Good To Be Considered As Depreciable:
That it can depreciate by wear or time
- That it is durable in the company (whether it is a tangible fixed asset) or intangible)
- Whether they are recorded on the assets side of the balance sheet
What Are Depreciable Items?
fixed assets : establishment costs (over 5 years), research costs (over 5 years) and patents, licenses (over 5 years) • Tangible fixed assets : constructions (20 to 50 years), fixtures or fittings (10 to 20 years), technical installations (5 to 10 years), transport equipment (4 to 5 years), office equipment or furniture (5 to 10 years), microcomputers (3 years)
What Are The Non-Depreciable Items?
Fixed Assets : business, lease rights, brands • Tangible fixed assets : land and works
The Duration Or Rate Of Amortization
The normal duration depends on the use of the asset. The asset can be depreciated more quickly if special operating conditions are present or in an exceptional manner.
The rate is normally calculated from the gross acquisition value of the asset (or contribution).
The Two Depreciation Methods
- Straight-Line Depreciation
This Depreciation Method Is Compulsory For Certain Goods:
– goods whose normal useful life is less than three years.
– second-hand goods
– goods not eligible for declining balance depreciation
It can also apply to all other goods
This method is relatively simple, since it is a question of saying that the good depreciates constantly. The amount of depreciation is therefore based on the number of years.
So if a property costs 20 000 and that the asset is depreciated over 5 years, the amortization will be 4000 euros (20,000 / 5) year
Warning: if the property is acquired during the year should be deducted the fraction of the year consumed on the first depreciation
- Declining Balance
This Type Of Depreciation Is Reserved For Certain Goods:
– New goods
– Goods of at least three years
– Belonging to one of the categories defined in the general tax code.
This system consists in considering that the depreciation of the good is stronger in the first years. Depreciation will therefore be greater in the first years.
This Involves Applying A Coefficient Which Varies According To The Normal Duration Of Use:
– If the normal duration of use is equal to 3 or 4 years: 1.25
– If the normal duration of use is equal to 5 or 6 years: 1.75
– If the normal duration of use is greater than 6 years: 2.25
Let’s take an example to explain the calculation method: a good that costs 10,000 euros and has a normal duration is always 5 years
The straight-line depreciation rate is 10,000 / 5 = 2,000 or 2,000 / 10,000 = 20%
The declining depreciation rate will then be: 20 X 1.75 = 35%
The first year if the property is acquired on January 1, then the annuity will be € 3,500
The following years: the depreciation is calculated on the basis of residual value either for example for the second year: 10 000 – 3500 = 6500 €
the annuity will be equal to 6500 x 35% = € 2275
summarizing, the rate obtained, said “steady rate” (here 35%) applies:
– the first year on the original value of the property
– the following years on the residual (remaining) value of the property.
Finally, if the declining amortization annuity <the residual value / the number of years remaining, then the company can report an amortization equal to these last annuities.